Creative Writing in Canada

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Creative Writing Biography

The Poetry Of E. E. Cummings by Cathy Inculet

Edward Estlin Cummings was born on October 14, 1894 in Cambridge, Massachusetts. He was the son of the Reverend Edward Cummings, a Unitarian Minister and occasional teacher at Harvard University. E. E. Entered Harvard in the Fall of 1911 and received his B.A. in 1915 and his M.A. in 1916. It was at Harvard that he began writing poetry and was a regular contributor to the Harvard Monthly, the Harvard Advocate, and The Dial. The latter publication was responsible for staring him on the road to fame.	
	At the age of twenty-three, in 1917, he embarked for France as a volunteer ambulance driver for the Norton Harjes Ambulance Corps, "being neither warrior nor conscientious objector; saint nor hero." 1 After four months in France, he and William Salter Brown, who he had met on the boat there, was arrested and held in a concentration camp for three months. Brown had written letters to people in the USA which authorities had considered pro-German. Cummings was suspected because of his association with Brown. This experience was recorded in his first book, the prose work The Enormous Room. 
	In 1925 Cummings received the Dial Award for poems in his first two books of verse; Tulips and Chimneys, (1923) and XLI Poems, (1925). He then began to exhibit his paintings and drawings, of which he actually did more than his poetry. In 1927 he turned to Drama. His play, Him, opened at the Provincetown Playhouse in 1928. In 1935 he published Tom, a poetic choreography used in the Broadway success, The King and I, fifteen years later, and in 1946, a one act play entitled Santa Claus: A Morality, was performed. It expressed Cummings' view that love and individuality are scarce in the modern world.
	During his lifetime, Cummings published many volumes of verse, including: &, is 5, W (or ViVa), No Thanks, New poems, 50 Poems, 1X1, XAIPE, 95 poems, and 73 Poems. In the Spring of 1931, he went to the Soviet Union for one month and recorded his travels and reaction to Communist society in a diary which was to be published in 1933 as Eimi. In 1953, Cummings published his discussions with Charles Eliot Norton, a lecturer of poetry at Harvard, as i: six nonlectures, and in 1957, he received both the Boligen Prize for Poetry and the Boston Arts Festival Award.
	E. E. Cummings died of a cerebral hemorrhage on September 3, 1962 while living on a farm with his third wife, Marion Morehouse. They lived in the White mountains near North Conway, New Hampshire.

1. E. E. Cummings,  i: six nonlectures (Cambridge, 1959, p. 52)

		Edmondo Dodsworth, in November 1938, wrote an article in Broletto, which stated:
		"1. The logical world in which the ‘normal man' moves or thinks he moves, far from being the whole of truth, is only a narrow division of it, a mere system of abstractions, invented and maintained for reasons of practical convenience, whether technical or social. From the poetic point of view this world is by definition ‘the maximum of irreality.
		2. Consequently the supreme task of poetry is to destroy and transcend this irreality in the service of something immensely more profound and vital. . . . This something is indomitable lyricalness . . . (and) Cummings is one of its most vital representatives." 2
E. E. Cummings used this tangible quality along with his very unique way of seeing things to produce many different kinds of poetry. These range from conventionally metered and rhyming works such as a man who had fallen among thieves, through blank verse to free verse and what is called cubist poetry. Finally, the unusual arrangements of stanzas, lines, words, and letters to make typographical pictures or ideographs. In his use of the last style, which probably originated from his painting skills, he has made poems shaped like a football on end, a wine glass, and billowing smoke. However, it is his cubist or futurist poetry for which he is most renowned.
		"This achievement is quite different from pictures formed out of type or calligraphy. Cummings was the first to introduce and develop those structural elements on the printed page that act as doors and passageways to ultimate effects. A simple test is to take any of his poems and note how his lines and divisions of lines help to establish meaning and accent as well as movement. In this respect, he was the innovator." 3

r-p-o-p-h-e-s-s-a-g-r is an extreme example of this style which is included here to simplify its recognition in subtler works:	

2. C. Norman, E. E. Cummings, New York, 1967, forward.
3. C. Norman, E. E. Cummings, New York, 1967, p. 119.

				r-p-o-p-h-e-s-s-a-g-r 
			who
a)s w)e loo)k
upnowgath
	PPEGORHRASS
			  Eringint(o-
aThe):l
	eA
	    !p:
S						a
		(r
rIvInG		     .gRrEaPsPhOs)	
				      To
rea(be)rran(com)gi(e)ngly
,grasshopper;
					
By breaking up the words into syllables and letters, running words together for speed of motion, capitalizing "hopper" and parts of the leap for emphasis, and using punctuation in curious places for maximum effectiveness (such as in the middle of the leap) instead of at the end of the line where the action is over, a visual image is formed that is part of the poem; the grasshopper hops.

					****

(of Ever-Ever Land i speak
sweet morons gather roun'
who does not dare to stand or sit
may take it lying down)

down with the human soul
and anything else uncanned
for everyone carries canopeners
in Ever-Ever Land

(for Ever-Ever Land is a place
that's as simple as simple can be
and was built that way on purpose
by simple people like we)

down with hell and heaven
and all the religious fuss
infinity pleased our parents
one inch looks good to us

(and Ever-Ever Land is a place
that's measured and safe and known
where it's lucky to be unlucky
and the hitler lies down with the cohn)

down above all with love
and everything perverse
or which makes some feel more better
when all ought to feel less worse

(but only sameness is normal
in Ever-Ever Land
for a bad cigar is a woman
but a gland is only a gland)

	In this poem, Cummings is being satirical, but the satire is definitely Horatian, causing the mood to be rather amusing. The theme is that people are afraid to be individuals; they like everything to be in a nice set order so that they can just blindly and inconspicuously follow along with the crowd and not have to think. It is cleverly shown by Cummings jumping in and out of the brackets. Out of them, it seems as though he is making a speech in favor of the Ever-Ever Landers' apathetic way of life, but in them is a whispered truth; Cummings is in Ever-Ever Land, but he isn't part of it so he can have an unbiased view. The brackets also serve another purpose which relates directly to the theme. People are not afraid to speak out about what they know everyone agrees with, but if they think to the contrary, the best they dare to do is to whisper it, bracket it, and perhaps meekly put it as an afterthought.
	Cummings starts out as a politician calling the "morons" around his platform where he will give a speech full of idiotic propaganda, which the people do take "lying down" because they are afraid to stand up for their rights. The very lack of punctuation is further proof of this. Traditionally, periods assert statements; commas are pauses for thought; question marks inquire; and an exclamation mark show strong feeling, none of which Ever-Ever Landers seem to do.  There is a strong resemblance to J. M. Barrie's Never-Never Land in Peter Pan. Both are fantasy worlds, but whereas Never-Never Land could never exist, there is a bit of Ever-Ever land everywhere. The stanza about the canopeners describes the mechanized, materialistic, robot-like society. A place where "one inch looks good enough" has people with closed minds, no goals or aspirations, no dreams. Again, this is in contrast to Never-Never Land, which is totally a dream world. As is "Peter Pan Syndrome" a dream world in the mind and not the real world. The statement down above all with love / and everything perverse is ironic. It serves to illustrate the corruption of the society, which with a little propaganda can be lead to believe anything. There is also irony in or which makes some feel more better / when all ought to feel less worse. Both mean essentially the same thing, but together they are given a Communistic twist where no one person rises; all go up and down together. On this note, the paradox that is the "lucky to be unlucky" can be resolved. If people are lucky, they will stand out as an individual which nobody wants to be (let alone be convicted as a traitor to the country's ideals, for the people, by the people, of the people.)
	Cummings does use some imagery in this poem, but only visual and very unrealistic. When one pictures little robots walking around with their little canopeners and saying down with, down with, the utter exaggeration not only gives a comic effect but also enables the reader to see those qualities in himself. The absence of any other sensual appeal goes with the idea of a cold, mechanical, unsensing society as does the use of repetition. The phrase "down with" is the phrase of a mob; people lumped together. A demagogue yells "down with" anything and the Ever-Ever Landers are programmed to destroy. Cummings makes use of only two metaphors, and very odd ones at that. a bad cigar is a woman sounds like something a politician once said which everyone now misquotes, because everyone does so it must be very profound. In the next line, a gland is only a gland is a rather strange usage of a synecdoche, where men are reduced to glands. Glands don't think; they just follow the orders of hormonal secretions from the brain.
	There is one regular meter in this poem, but there is some pattern to its switching around. Outside the brackets, there is a tendency toward anapestic meter, as these stanzas are spoken with confidence. The stanzas are bracketed are given more of a regular dactylic, thoughtful rhythm, with some anapestic spurts (perhaps as society's brainwashing with memorized phrases coming through.) The rhyme is very regular, A-B-A-B all the way. It gives it a childish tone, as if  it is memorized and just being rattled off without the knowledge of its meaning. Cummings omitted the "d" in round in the second line to keep the rhyme regular.
	This work shows Cummings was anti-mechanistic . In another poem, he wrote with a similar theme:

	(While you and i have lips and voices, which
	are for kissing and to sing with
	who cares if some oneeyed son of a bitch
	invents an instrument to measure Spring with?)

He has often been quoted as saying that "Radio has taken the ears away from people completely . . . progress (is) regression to barbarism" and science is "the omnipotent Genie of the uncorked Unknown." 4 It also hints at his great regard for the individual, expressed in many poems such as:
	any man is wonderful
	and a formula
	a bit of tobacco and gladness
	plus little derricks of gesture

I mentioned what I thought was a comparison to Communist society in the poem. This poem was published in 1938, in New Poems, written a few years after his visit to Russia, so it is possible that it is his impression of the way in which the American people are much like the Russians, except in a different situation. Whereas
	kumrads die because they're told)
	kumrads die before they're old
the "Ever-Ever Landers" don't live.

				****
		my sweet old etcetera
		aunt lucy during the recent

		war could and what
		is more did tell you just
		what everybody was fighting
	
4. C. Norman, E. E. Cummings, New York, 1967, p. 7.

		for,
		my sister

		isabel created hundreds
		(and
		hundreds) of socks not to
		mention shirts fleaproof earwarmers

		etcetera writers etcetera, my
		mother hoped that

		i would die etcetera
		bravely of course my father used
		to become hoarse talking about how it was
		a privilege and if only he
		could meanwhile my

		self etcetera lay quietly
		in the deep mud et

		cetera
		(dreaming,
		et
			cetera, of
		Your smile
		eyes knees and of your Etcetera)



Continued

		This poem is also satirical, and its mood is very lighthearted and amusing. The theme is that people will talk about anything and everything even when they know nothing about it, and in reality nobody really understands anything, even those who are experiencing it. The ending is somewhat of a surprise, because after portraying the four people as ignorant loud-mouths, we expect "myself" who is laying in the mud to be bitter. Instead we find that he is exactly the same.


	The poem makes use of metaphors or similes. This gets across the face value impression; people talk shallowly with no meaning behind their words. The visual images help to make a contrast so that the ending is more effective. At the beginning, the most vivid mental picture the reader can form is of Isabella surrounded by her creations. They are in a silly world, so their silly talk is understandable. However, when we are given a concrete image os a man laying in the mud, it is a shock to find dreaming where we expected blatant reality.
	The repetition of the word etcetera is very significant, in that it is what people say when there is nothing else to say. In the first lines, my sweet old etcetera / aunt lucy . . . is a zeugma. If the etcetera is a continuation of "sweet old" then it implies that he did not really know his aunt. He calls her sweet and old because everyone's aunt is sweet and old but other than that he can't tell anything about her. If the etcetera is taken as a description of his aunt, then it is a unique adjective to describe someone who talks and talks etcetera about everything. In the line, mother hoped that / i would die etcetera / bravely . . . the etcetera emphasis the shallowness of the remark. It is just "the thing" that one says and can be classified along with "hell, how are you, I am fine." On top of that I am sure his mother did not want him to die, even bravely. The use of etcetera in . . . meanwhile my / self etcetera lay quietly is significant in that he doesn't know himself, and in the eyes knees and of your Etcetera because he does not know the girl or what it is about her that he loves.
	This poems is done in free verse and lacks a regular metric pattern and rhyme, but the variations in pace, pause, and line apply to the theme. In the first two lines, Aunt Lucy is introduced, then there is a pause and the next little stanza reads quite fast, the rhyming of "war" and "for" is quite noticeable and almost lends a singsong quality to that section, giving the impression that once she is started on her spiel, she keeps going until the record stops. The pause after "fighting" serves two purposes. First it gives the phrase a double meaning; namely that she knew "what" everybody was fighting as well as "what for." This doubles the irony that neither she nor anyone else knew anything. Secondly, the pause is Aunt Lucy taking a breath. The comma shows her intention to continue, but as if in a conversation, "my sister" interrupts and tells her bit, just as fast. The idea of "fleaproof earwarmers" sounds ridiculous; she just made them because it was fashionable to, not really knowing what war is or what a soldier needs. In the same way "my mother" interrupts Isabella while she is on a comma. Father is still talking about how it was in his day and what a privilege it is when a pause between stanzas takes us to a different place, where "myself" is. Here, the pace is slowed to a dreaming speed by the chopped-up words, and ironically, we see that although he is at war, he doesn't understand what it or anything else is all about; he is just dreaming. In the last line, we see that he really is like the rest of them because the reading pace speeds and he is thinking in the same gossipy, run-on way.
	This poem was published in 1926 in is 5. The war was over  long enough before that it couldn't have been his reason for the writing of the poem, only the excuse. It is interesting that Cumming's arrest during the war was caused by Brown's written gossip about the war and he was held because of a general lack of communication and yet in this poem gossip and ignorance are supposedly a harmless integral part of human nature. He is not bitter about them. It is also significant that Cumming's, whom "myself" is taken in the poem to be, should portray himself as not paying any attention to what is going on around him. This coincides with his concept that:
		"The difference between a business man and an artist is this: the business man lives in a world which is completely outside him. That's his reality. When that world collapses, he collapses. But the artist never turns a hair. Why? Because an artist's country is inside him." 5
		but if a living dance upon dead minds why, it is love; but at the earliest spear of sun perfectly should disappear moon's utmost magic, or stones speak or one name control more incredible splendor than our mere universe, love's also there: and being imprisoned, tortured here, love everywhere exploding maims and blinds (but surely does not forget, perish, sleep cannot be photographed, measured; disdains the trivial labeling of punctual brains . . . Who wields a poem huger than the grave? From only Whom shall time no refuge keep though all the weird worlds must be opened?)Love

	This poem is written almost as a narrative, but the mood which it conveys is one of awe and respect for love. The theme is that love exists in many different forms, some free and some restricted, but nobody can say which of the "weird worlds" of love represents true love until after death, because time never destroys true love. "Perhaps love can only come when we are young and stupid. Of course, later on, sometimes your gut feeling was right and that person was right for you, but that giddy-in-love, put-your-brain-on-the-plate kind of love, I don't think it will ever be found. He faught for humanity. Strength is not power unless it is focussed and used. Focus is not enough, there must be desire and belief for nothing is so strong as true love. It is no wonder we cannot understand love, for it does not belong to us, it belongs to life, and each of us can only hope to know that tiny part upon which we are entrusted, and to use it with the care and sense of duty which should be given another's most precious belonging. Perhaps that is why we all try and give love away, nobody wants the responsibility of having to hold it." 6
	It is odd that Cummings does use a metaphor, "spear of sun," in this poem because he rarely uses such devices in any poems and especially those about love. "Only an extraordinary accomplished and controlled technique could have communicated so much intensity." 7 However, the poem is about different kinds of love, including those which extol flowery phrases of devotion. The use of the word "spear," a killing weapon, is ironic with "sun," the source of all life. It is actually a subtle paradox, which can be solved by the recognition of a type of love 

5. C. Norman, E. E. Cummings, New York, 1967, p. 9.
6.  C. Inculet, Day Lilies, HMS Press, London 2020
7. C. Norman, E. E. Cummings, New York, 1967, p. 132.

which is wounded or prevented by occurrences in people's lives and yet true "loves also there," because it doesn't die. It could also just as easily mean the first "rays" of sunlight which spear and  overpower the weak light of the Moon in the morning. Love is personified as "Who" and "Whom" at the end; the fact that Cummings capitalizes them shows his respect for love. Perhaps that "Who" is a poet and the "Whom" is immortal, is a comment on the immortality of poetry about love which causes some love to remain forever. This is just as in Shakespeare, in his sonnet Shall I Compare Thee, supposedly gave immortal life to the girl he was describing.
	This prose poem lacks visual images. Cummings is talking about love, which cannot be photographed, measured. It is abstract and therefore must be felt and not seen. Cummings, like Gertrude Stein, was "a futurist who subordinates the meaning of words to the beauty of the words themselves. This art is the logic of literary sound-painting carried to its extreme." 8
	To covey this feeling to the reader, he has used many literary devices. The first line is of particular interest to me. First, there is the elision of a noun for the word "living." The prose poem has no meter, so to omit it cannot be for structural regularity. It is for the intangibility of love; love is not a noun here. Cummings did not like nouns. He defined his "child-art" as depicting
		". . . houses, trees, smoke, people, etc. . . . not as nouns but as verbs . . . to appreciate it we are compelled to undress one by one the soggy nouns whose agglomeration constitutes the mechanism of Normality, and finally to liberate the actual crisp organic squirm - the IS." 9
People cannot say what love is; they can only describe it such as Love is and shall be this / the moment just before / and just after a kiss, 10 and Cummings says it is a living. This mood of insecurity about what love is, is established from the first word, "but"; a word used, just as the poem is, to separate conflicting ideas in an attempt for resolution. The forth line, Moon's utmost magic, or stones speak or one is full of s's. This produces a dreamy, euphoric feeling, just as the type of love which it describes is an infatuation, with one name meaning more than the whole beauty of the universe. The phrase moon's utmost magic is metonymy, the moon as it does, symbolizing romance and the mysterious thing which kindles it. The line love exploding maims and blinds ,is given a double meaning because it is a zeugma. 

8.  C. Norman, E. E. Cummings, New York, 1967, p. 43.
9.  Ibid. P. 179
10. W. Ray, Poetics III, HMS Press, London, 1995		

If it is read as love exploding everywhere, then it is very outwardly expressed love that is being described, and Cummings says that such love maims and blinds love. It is, in his opinion, a false love, but only time will give the true test. The phrase could also be inferred as universal love which destroys all personal vices and defects, the love being so strong that it is blind to them.
	The poem is in the form of a Petrarchan Sonnet, composed of an octave followed by a sestet, but it is still free verse, without regular meter or rhyme. There are, however, two rhyming couplets which stand out because of this. The first makes up the second and third lines and its significance lays in the two rhyming words; "spear" and "disappear." Spear, as I mentioned before, represents a killing weapon. It is after death that false love "disappears" and is exposed as false love by its inability to survive. Whereas true love wields a poem huger than the grave.  The second couplet is the tenth and eleventh lines. Here, the rhyming has an artificial, mechanical, robot-like quality. The rhythms of the two lines match as well, and it illustrates the way people try to fit love as a certain size of wheel in a certain type of machine. This rhyming couplet also serves to separate the two parts of the sonnet because of its change of tone. It is the commercialization of love; all the little witticisms of people trying to qualify and categorize it so that they can touch it and say, There, that is love, and produce the perfect fail-safe formula for it. This is in direct contrast with the first part which describes love as that which can bring "dead minds" to life, but it is casual and seemingly temporary, infatuated, or very outward and demonstrative. These are all love.
						***
suppose
life is an old man carrying flowers on his head.
Young death sits in a café
smiling, a piece of money held between
his thumb and first finger

(  say "will he buy flowers" to you
and "Death is young
life, wears velour trousers
life totters, life has a beard"  
say to you who are silent. - "Do you see
Life? he is there and here,
or that, or this
or nothing or an old man 3 thirds
asleep, on his head
flowers, always crying
to nobody about something les
roses les bluets
		yes,
			Will He buy?
Les belles bottes - oh hear
, pas chères")

and my love slowly answered I think so. But
I think I see someone else

there is a lady, whose name is Afterwards
she is sitting beside young death, is slender;
likes flowers.

	This poem is very calm, quiet and thoughtful, and pitying, almost crying for life! The theme is that nobody knows what they want in life until afterwards, when it is to late and death is beside them. It is done in free verse with absolutely no meter or rhyme. This applies to the mood of the poem, which is in turn set by the first word, "suppose" followed by a pause in the reading of the poem which gives a quality of dreaming.
	The personification of life and death is important to the poem. Life is an old man carrying flowers on his head. He is silly and senile. He also wears velour trousers.  This sartorial imagery contrasts with that of a flower-seller. Velour is a velvety material, representing material wealth; he is rich on the outside, but actually poor like a flower-seller because people won't buy the flowers which represent the wealth in the beauty of nature and love and all things in life, which people tend to overlook because of money. Death, however, sits in a café / smiling, a piece of money held between his thumb and first finger. Death is very young. This is Cummings' twist to the usual portrayal of life as youth and vitality, death as a gaunt skeleton with an evil leer. The different visual image may be of interest to the reader.
	Repetition plays a part in the effectiveness of the poem. The repetition of "life" in the eighth and ninth lines gives an accusing, almost mocking tone. This increases the reader's sympathy with the old man. It is also noticeable that in this stanza, in contrast to the first two, "Death" is capitalized and "life" is not. This serves to raise death above life. It is bigger and eventually takes over and wins. Life, as in the second line, has a period after it - it ends, but death has no period - it never ends. The repetition of "or" in the twelfth and thirteenth lines gives the impression of uncertainty. Cummings is saying that life means different things to different people.
	The meaning of this poem is conveyed by the words themselves, and by the image or picture which Cummings paints, as well as by the aforesaid devices. At the end of the line life totters, life has a beard  , the   is significant in that Cummings puts himself beside life; his description of life runs right into himself, therefore we return to his conception that a poet is alive and has the necessary extra sensitivity to be so. Then, in the next line, he speaks, to you who are silent, those who are living but quiet and dead on the inside because life is only outside of them and in the form of materialistic wealth. The use of a number in 3 thirds asleep is rather unorthodox (even frowned upon) but in this case it has the effect of disguising the fact that life is totally asleep. Also, the use of fractions illustrates the slow process by which life goes to asleep, a pseudo-death. In the next line is a device typical of Cummings, the inversion of "flowers" and "on his head." Cummings thought that to obey the correct order of words was to create sterility, and thus in this case, rearranging them produced liveliness and vitality (which life once had). The usage of "buy" and "pas chères" reinforces the idea of material wealth being the only important thing until it is too late and people will not spend it for the abstract loveliness of what a flower represents. At first, "Life" tries to sell them solely on the merit of beauty, and then as an afterthought (after a comma) tries to speak in a language which people will understand - money! In the next line, and my love slowly answered I think so, Cummings makes use of a zeugma. I think so, could be his love's answer, or he could be expressing doubt as to whether or not she answered. Either way it signifies a non-committal, ignorant, doubtful, goalless life. It is interesting that Cummings uses "I" three times in the twenty-second and twenty-third lines. Almost as a trademark, he uses the lower case " " because "I" wasn't important to him. He once stated that "it is the conventional way that is artificial and affected . . . only in English is the "I" capitalized." 11 Any time he violates his own rule, it has a meaning. In this case it puts him, as a poet, above those who are silent.
	This poem was published in 1925 in & (AND) is in many ways similar to his play Santa Claus, in which (aphadepherous) Santa cannot give his gift of understanding because it cannot be sold. It is interesting that Cummings has set the poem in France. He was in Paris from 1921 until 1923 and felt ( as did many writers and poets at the time did) that America stifled him whereas in France & Europe he was appreciated.
						***
The Imaginist Credo, in which Ezra Pound et al. Of the English Group stated certain goals, had a great effect upon Cummings' writing, especially the aim "To produce poetry that is hard and clear, never blurred, no indefinite." 12 Cummings also influenced his contemporaries, Pound, Eliot, and Joyce, in his search for the secret of emotion and movement that lies at the heart of words.
		"A poem is the culmination of a poet's experience and is itself part of the experience. Cummings communicates his experience by means of language and forms that dramatize it, so that the experience is still taking place, so far as the reader is concerned." 13
However, regardless of what style he uses, Cummings strives to bring about a theme, that of the universe in a type of spiritual harmony.

11 C. Norman, E. E. Cummings, New York, 1967, p. 211
12. C. Norman, E. E. Cummings, New York, 1967, p. 38.
13. C. Norman, E. E. Cummings, New York, 1967, p. 130.


Bibliography

1. Cummings, E. E. A Miscellany. New York: The Argophile Press, 1958.
2. Cummings, E. E. Complete Poems. New York: Harcourt Brace Javanovich, 1968.
3. Cummings, E. E.  : six nonlectures. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1959.
4. Dupee, F. W. And Stade G. Selected Letters of E. E. Cummings. New York, 
	Harcourt Brace, 1969.
5.  Norman, C. E. E. Cummings, New York, E. P. Dutton & Co., 1967, 
6. Charlesworth R. A. & Lee, D. An Anthology of Verse. Toronto: 
	Oxford University Press, 1964.

Definitions

Anapestic		Metric Foot characterized by two short syllables followed by a long one.
Aphadepherous	Where the head and the body are rotund, round. The opposite of Anorexic where the head and body are narrow.
Elision		The omission of a sound or syllable / the action of merging.
Metonymy		Substituting the name of an attribute or feature for the name of the thing itself. Eg: "they counted heads"
Zeugma		The use of a word to govern two or more words though appropriate to only one.